Slavery in New England was brutal and lasted, in its official form, for 150 years. Enslavement greatly enriched the colonists and, later, citizens of New England, and only died out gradually and fitfully.

This is the proposition of an op-ed appearing in tomorrow’s Boston Globe, entitled “New England’s scarlet ‘S’ for slavery,” in honor of the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The op-ed suggests that the northern states lag behind the South in acknowledging the difficult truths of race buried in our past, and that we cannot skip this step if we are to make progress on race relations.

The essay is written by C. S. Manegold, who is the author of Ten Hills Farm: The Forgotten History of Slavery in the North (2009), published last month by Princeton University Press.

Among the highlights of the brief history of New England slavery presented by Manegold:

  • John Winthrop, the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the man who associated the American colonies with the biblical phrase “a city upon a hill,” kept slaves and helped to write the first law in North America, in 1641, to officially sanction slavery
  • The first slaves in New England were American Indians captured as prisoners of war and given out to white soldiers or allied Indian tribes. Black slavery, however, had reached the northern colonies long before the 1641 law allowing the practice
  • Slavery in New England was not gentle. The example given by Manegold, from one of the earliest accounts of life in New England, is of a slave living near the present-day Logan Airport, who was ordered to rape another slave so that the owner could breed his own slaves
  • As early as 1638, New England traders shipped American Indian slaves  to the Caribbean in exchange for “cotton, and tobacco and Negroes”
  • One of Governor Winthrop’s sons served as governor of Connecticut and owned black slaves on many properties, while another son served as lieutenant governor in Antigua and oversaw a large slave plantation
  • Slavery in Massachusetts lasted until well after the American Revolution, when a little-noted court opinion began the long, slow process by which slavery died out gradually, “farm by farm, owner by owner”
  • Harvard Law School was founded with money derived in part from slavery and slave-trading, and Barack Obama’s basement apartment in Somerville was located on land that had contained slaves for 150 years

Manegold notes that the historical amnesia of the North has been dramatically successful: today, slavery is associated primarily with the South, while the North conjures images of heroic patriots and staunch abolitionists, and perhaps the occasional “domestic servant” subject to mild treatment. This message is, of course, also at the heart of Traces of the Trade, and it has always been a central concern of this blog.

Manegold’s essay is based largely on her book, Ten Hills Farm, about the property originally owned by Governor Winthrop and the century and a half of slavery which took place there.

As a result, her brief summary of the history of slavery in New England omits several issues that I consider to be vital: she skips lightly over the gradual, half-hearted emancipation of northern slaves, and says nothing about the shocking “Negro removal” policies of the northern states after they no longer had need of their freed slaves. Manegold could also have mentioned how ambivalent the northern states were about slavery, and how profoundly intertwined their economies were with southern slavery, until the outbreak of the Civil War.

Most importantly, Manegold could have enlightened her readers about the extent to which the New England economy depended upon slavery. Not only were slavery and slave-trading substantial businesses in New England until the early 19th century, but the economy of colonial New England depended heavily on the trade to the West Indies, which involved supplying sugar plantations with agricultural products, lumber, livestock, and light manufactured goods, all of which the plantation owners were will to purchase at a premium in order to keep their land and slaves producing the “white gold” that brought such wealth to the West Indies in the 18th century. (This is the trade which President John Quincy Adams said was an “essential ingredient” in our independence, because it was essential in providing the colonies enough wealth to be able to revolt successfully against Great Britain.)

After the Revolution, meanwhile, and until the Civil War, the northern states profited heavily from southern cotton production, specializing in the financing, insurance, marketing, and transportation of the vast quantities of cotton which were eventually produced in the South, to the extent that most of the profits from southern cotton production flowed into the northern states. Finally, in the decades leading up to the Civil War, the northern states industrialized on the backs of southern slaves, turning the profits from northern slave-trading and southern slavery, along with inexpensive, slave-produced cotton, into the cotton textile industry which laid the foundation for U.S. economic development after the Civil War.

Despite what else she could have said, Manegold has written a powerful essay, and I believe she has chosen a highly suitable occasion. She quotes Dr. King, at the start of her essay, as follows:

Nothing in all the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity.

This is indeed, it seems to me, the primary reason why we must re-learn what New Englanders understood until well into the 20th century, that slavery was an integral part of the region’s past and how it became what it is today. As Manegold writes:

as King suggested, responsible dialogue can not move forward with half-truths and willful ignorance. In this regard, the North has work to do. It lags behind the South in stepping up to ugly truths.

3 Responses to ““New England’s Scarlet ‘S’ for Slavery””

  1. Tweets that mention “New England’s Scarlet ‘S’ for Slavery” | The Living Consequences -- says:

    […] This post was mentioned on Twitter by Traces of the Trade, James DeWolf Perry. James DeWolf Perry said: The Boston Globe has an op-ed tomorrow about New England's leading role in slavery: […]

  2. Exposing the role of New England in slavery | The Living Consequences says:

    […] reality is that Massachusetts was a slave state, and Concord was a slave town. Slave-owning took place here for more than a century and a half, […]

  3. John Umland says:

    A couple years ago, reporters from the Hartford Courant published a book on slavery in Connecticut called Complicity: How the North Promoted, Prolonged, and Profited from Slavery and in my immature self-righteous belief that the North did little compared to the South, I refused to read it. I figured it was a white, liberal self-flagellation. Fast forward to a couple of weeks ago and I encountered the book this report focuses on, Ten Hills Farm, The forgotten history of slavery in the North by C. S. Manegold. This time I was ready to learn. And I did. Ms. Manegold smacks my northern arrogance around. She confronts it directly.

    "This matter of station has consistently and perhaps conveniently been confused with ideas about the supposedly "gentle" culture of slavery as it evolved in the North. Yet that assumption breaks down with even the scantiest analysis. The great shibboleth of northern slavery is that it was somehow "benign," softer than its southern cousin, even vaguely "familial" in some way, as though all could gather happily around a kitchen table, a master at the head. Yet the reality for these slaves could not hae been more at odds with that fine fantasy. For them, the most fundamental truth was this: Whites who ruled their lives at Ten Hills Farm and in the big houses along Brattle Street were, in many case, the very same men and women who had ruled their livers on warmer shores." p.180

    There is nothing gentle and familial about the ownership of humans. Even worse was it was ongoing from nearly the founding of the colony of Massachusetts. At first Governor Winthrop, founder of Ten Hills Farm in modern day Medford, Mass. owned native american slaves. The third owner of the property, Isaac Royall owned at least 40, if not 80, in the colonies, and perhaps as many in the Caribbean climate, growing sugar cane and making rum to enlarge his fortunes. The somewhat religiously devout citizens of Boston tolerated or owned slaves.

    "By 1700, there were more than four hundred slaves counted in the colony. Thirty-five years later, when the Mastre bought Ten Hills Farm, the number was six times as great, and the total would continue growing. In 1754, when Massachusetts officials made their first formal tally of black slaves, 4,489 were included in the count. The second census, completed in 1765, showed the number growing still – up by more than one thousand to a total of 5,779 black men, women, and children without freedom." p.181

    She lists numerous examples of black slave families being separated to satisfy the financial whims of their white owners. Slaves were also executed for things or whipped or beaten without any recourse.

    Around the time of the Revolutionary War, when white americans were declaring they refused to be slaves of England, the hypocrisy was getting harder to ignore. Even some whites were brave enough to be counter cultural and advocate for the abolition of slavery.

    "In A Disuasion to Great Britain, [James] Swan, cited the bible to underscore his point. Dueteronomy 15:13-14 required that slaves go free after a term of seven years, the colonial essayist reminded readers. Nor should those former slaves be sent off empty-handed. "Thou shalt furnish him out of thy flock … and out of the floor, and out of thy wine press; of that wherewith the Lord thy God hath blessed thee, though shalt give him. This is in token that thou dost acknowledge the benefit thou hast received by his labors." That argument failed, too. Slavery kept its grip, for now, at least." pp. 210-1

    It was a religious region, but as is typical, religion was not allowed to interfere with commerce and personal pleasure. Considering the amount of drinking and gambling this upper class indulged in, I'm sure they molded their religion to their lives, instead submitting to their religion. Treating fellow humans as neighbors instead of means to ends has been our difficulty since the beginning of time, see Cain and Abel. To this day we may tsk-tsk these hypocritical religious slave owners, but make every excuse for our tolerance for the murders of babies in wombs. Over and over again, as I read the history of our inhumanity to each other, I think of the phrase, "the veneer of civilization is very thin," from Iris Chang in her book the Rape of Nanking. I think we white wash our histories because we want to believe that someone in our past was noble. Reading history always helps to silence that notion.

    Manegold writes well. She's read some of the books I have reported on here before. And she also points me to new ones for me to learn from, including the one about slavery in Connecticut. I think I am ready for the death of my notion that my state was innocent.

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